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There are special cases in which instead of the above 5 fields you can use followed by a keyword — such as reboot, midnight, yearly, hourly. To schedule a job for first minute of every year using yearly If you want a job to be executed on the first minute of every year, then you can use the yearly cron keyword as shown below. This will execute the system annual maintenance using annual-maintenance shell script at on Jan 1st for every year.

To schedule a Cron job beginning of every month using monthly It is as similar as the yearly as above. But executes the command monthly once using monthly cron keyword. This will execute the shell script tape-backup at on 1st of every month. To schedule a background job every day using daily Using the daily cron keyword, this will do a daily log file cleanup using cleanup-logs shell script at on every day.

To execute a linux command after every reboot using reboot Using the reboot cron keyword, this will execute the specified command once after the machine got booted every time. Reference : Linux man page for cron This article is contributed by Kishlay Verma. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.

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Writing code in comment? Please use ide. Create a password generator using shell scripting gs command in Linux with Examples. Scheduling a Job For a Specific Time The basic usage of cron is to execute a job in a specific time as shown below. The time field uses 24 hours format. So, for 8 AM use 8, and for 8 PM use View Root Crontab entries : Login as root user su — root and do crontab -l.

Twice a Day The following script take a incremental backup twice a day every day.

Interest Rate Swap | Examples | Uses | Swap Curve | WSM

To schedule a job for certain range of time e. Only on Weekdays If you wanted a job to be scheduled for every hour with in a specific range of time then use the following. Cron Job everyday during working hours : This example checks the status of the database everyday including weekends during the working hours 9 a. Recommended Posts: Cat command in Linux with examples ps command in Linux with Examples apt-get command in Linux with Examples help Command in Linux with examples ssh command in Linux with Examples more command in Linux with Examples rcp Command in Linux with examples mv command in Linux with examples for command in Linux with Examples tac command in Linux with Examples cvs command in Linux with Examples let command in Linux with Examples cpp command in Linux with Examples until command in Linux with Examples fc Command in Linux with Examples.

The beauty of this approach is that we can easily include additional keys in each address that can be used for both sorting and selection: for example, an extra markup line of the form:. You could, of course, go overboard and use XML markup to identify the parts of the address in excruciating detail:.

With fancier data-processing filters, you could then please your post office by presorting your mail by country and postal code, but our minimal markup and simple pipeline are often good enough to get the job done. The obvious way to sort data requires comparing all pairs of items to see which comes first, and leads to algorithms known as bubble sort and insertion sort.

These quick-and-dirty algorithms are fine for small amounts of data, but they certainly are not quick for large amounts, because their work to sort n records grows like n 2. This is quite different from almost all of the filters that we discuss in this book: they read a record, process it, and output it, so their execution time is directly proportional to the number of records, n. The Unix sort command implementation has received extensive study and optimization: you can be confident that it will do the job efficiently, and almost certainly better than you can do yourself without learning a lot more about sorting algorithms.

An important question about sorting algorithms is whether or not they are stable : that is, is the input order of equal records preserved in the output? A stable sort may be desirable when records are sorted by multiple keys, or more than once in a pipeline. POSIX does not require that sort be stable, and most implementations are not , as this example shows:. The sort fields are identical in each record, but the output differs from the input, so sort is not stable. Fortunately, the GNU implementation in the coreutils package [1] remedies that deficiency via the -- stable option : its output for this example correctly matches the input.

Here's a convenient way of finding those space hogs in your home directory can be any directory. For me, those large files are usually a result of mkfile event testing purposes and can be promptly deleted. Here's an example of its use. In the following examples, first the preferred and then the obsolete way of specifying sort keys are given as an aid to understanding the relationship between the two forms. Either of the following commands sorts the contents of infile with the second field as the sort key:.

Either of the following commands sorts, in reverse order, the contents of infile1 and infile2 , placing the output in outfile and using the second character of the second field as the sort key assuming that the first character of the second field is the field separator :. Either of the following commands sorts the contents of infile1 and infile2 using the second non-blank character of the second field as the sort key:.

Either of the following commands prints the passwd 4 file user database sorted by the numeric user ID the third colon-separated field :. Either of the following commands prints the lines of the already sorted file infile , suppressing all but one occurrence of lines having the same third field:.

Either of the following commands prints the hosts 4 file IPv4 hosts database , sorted by the numeric IP address the first four numeric fields :. Since '. For the large majority of applications, treating keys spanning more than one field as numeric will not do what you expect. To achieve this, we will use sort, the unix sorting tool.

A much more complicated sort can be achieved. For example, we can sort using the shell in a first step then sort using the geco:. You have a file with some people you lend money and the amount of money you gave them. Just type. The following are modification parameters: -b jumps over leading whitespaces -d dictionary sort just using letters, numbers and whitespace -f ignores case distinction -n sort numerically -r reverse order.

Qt Project Files

The term sorting, strictly speaking, really means to separate things into different categories. For example, you might sort clothes for washing into light and dark colors. In computer jargon, though, when we say we are sorting data, we really mean that we are ordering it, that is, putting records in order according to their contents. For example, we might write a program to sort the entries in an address book into alphabetical order. The sort utility reads a stream of records and outputs the records in order according to one or more sort keys, that is, according to part or all of the contents of each record.

Input and output streams If sort is executed without any arguments, it reads a stream of lines from its standard input, sorts them in order by the ASCII codes of all the characters from left to right, and writes the sorted stream to the standard output. You may also specify one or more input files as arguments to sort. This example would sort three files named moe, larry and curly, and call the output file stooges:. You can ask sort to write to a specific file by using the -o option, followed by a space and then the name of the desired output file.

This command would work just like the previous example:. Fields and keys A field is some part of a record. For example, a file containing records describing your grocery list might have two fields, one for the item, and another for the quantity needed:. A field separator is some character you put between fields in a record. In the above example, spaces are used as field separators. If you don't specify otherwise, the sort utility assumes that space is the field separator.

3.3 Managing the Database

A different grocery list might use, for example, comma as a field separator. This would allow you to have blanks within a field:. A sort key is the field or fields used in ordering records. For example, here is a file describing mineral specimens. Each record has three fields--the type of mineral, the price, and the place it was collected. To sort this file by place the third field , we use:. Sometimes you want to sort a file on more than one key. For example, suppose you want to sort a list of students by grade and name: you want all the A's together, and all the B's, but within each grade you want the students in alphabetical order.

The most important key is called the major key. If two records have the same value in their major key field, sort can then use another field sometimes called the minor key as a tie-breaker. You can have any number of keys.

For example, if you specify seven sort keys, and two given records have identical values for the first six keys, but different values for the seventh key, those two records will be ordered according to their seventh key. For example, suppose you have a file named x of records with ten keys each, and you want to sort on the third, fourth, fifth, ninth, and first fields, in that order. Here is the correct command:. Sort options Here is the full syntax of the sort command, taken from the man page:. This command syntax is typical of Unix utilities: there are a group of letters -mcubfdinrt that must be preceded by a hyphen.

These "dash options" change the way that files are sorted.

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The -m option selects merging instead of sorting. Merging produces a single sorted file by putting together two or more files that are already sorted by the same criteria. More than one infile must be specified. If the input files are not already sorted, sort will not produce sorted output, and it won't warn you either. The -c option causes the input to be checked to see if it is sorted; it won't actually sort anything.